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Title: Mechanical comparison of standard interlocking, clawed, and expandable wedge locked nail fixations: An experimental and numerical study
Authors: Özkaya, Mustafa
Tunalı, Selçuk
Köksal, İsmet
Demir, Teyfik
Keywords: Intramedullary nailing
Expandable nail
Self-locking nail
Wedged locked nail fixation
Clawed nail fixation
Femur fractures
Tibial Shaft Fractures
Intramedullary Nail
Intertrochanteric Fractures
Biomechanical Evaluation
Compression Screw
Distal Locking
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Abstract: Introduction: Intramedullary nailing has been used as a standard in the treatment of the long bone frac-tures with its clinical and mechanical advantages. However, using distal locking screws has been asso-ciated with longer operative times, higher radiation exposure rates, and complications like breakages of distal screw or nail at the screw hole level. Therefore, attempts to eliminate distal locking screws has been always present for intramedullary nail fixation. With a similar purpose, the present study has been carried out to compare mechanical behaviors of intramedullary nail fixations with different distal locking elements.Materials and Methods: In this study, mechanical behaviors of standard interlocking and clawed nail fixa-tions were compared experimentally in the first part. Six fourth generation Sawbones femurs, which have a simulated subtrochanteric fracture, were divided equally and were fixed with standard interlocking and clawed nails. During axial compression tests, experimental strain measurements were taken from all fix-ations. After validation of numerical models with using experimental strains and stiffnesses, mechanical behaviors of standard interlocking, clawed, and wedge locked nail fixations were compared numerically under axial compression loads. In numerical comparison, the stress-strain distributions were evaluated.Results: Experimental results showed that although that there was no significant difference in stiffnesses, standard nail fixation bore two times higher loads than clawed nail fixations. Under loading, decrease in the distance between fracture surfaces was approximately seven times higher in the clawed nail fixa-tion when compared to standard nail fixations. Numerical results showed that wedge locked nail fixation provided equivalent mechanical behavior to standard interlocking nail.Discussion: In experiments of clawed nail fixation, the high decrease in the distance between fracture surfaces was evidence of the slippage of nail in the medullary canal. For a safe fixation, claws should be deployed when they are completely in contact with the cortical bone, they should be stuck into the bone in a fair amount, and the deployment in the distal third of the femur should be avoided. According to ex-perimentally validated numerical analyses, wedge locked nail fixation may be an alternative for standard interlocking nail fixation if experimental studies support the present results.(c) 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0020-1383
Appears in Collections:PubMed İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / PubMed Indexed Publications Collection
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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