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Title: The effects of secondary stressors, social identity, and social support on perceived stress and resilience: Findings from the COVID-19 pandemic
Authors: Ntontis, Evangelos
Blackburn, Angelique M.
Han, Hyemin
Stoeckli, Sabrina
Milfont, Taciano L.
Tuominen, Jarno
Griffin, Siobhan M.
Keywords: COVID-19
Primary stressors
Secondary stressors
Social identity
Social support
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd
Abstract: Primary stressors are direct outcomes of extreme events (e.g., viruses, floodwater) whereas secondary stressors stem from pre-disaster life circumstances and societal arrangements (e.g., illness, problematic pre-disaster pol-icies) or from inefficient responses to the extreme event. Secondary stressors can cause significant long-term damage to people affected but are also tractable and amenable to change. In this study we explored the asso-ciation between secondary stressors, social identity processes, social support, and perceived stress and resilience. Pre-registered analyses of data from the COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey Round II (N = 14,600; 43 countries) show that secondary stressors are positively associated with perceived stress and negatively associated with resilience, even when controlling for the effects of primary stressors. Being a woman or having lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher exposure to secondary stressors, higher perceived stress, and lower resilience. Importantly, social identification is positively associated with expected support and with increased resilience and lower perceived stress. However, neither gender, SES, or social identification moderated the relationship be-tween secondary stressors and perceived stress and resilience. In conclusion, systemic reforms and the avail-ability of social support are paramount to reducing the effects of secondary stressors.
ISSN: 0272-4944
Appears in Collections:PubMed İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / PubMed Indexed Publications Collection
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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