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Title: Outbreaks Due to Parasites: Examples from the World and T?rkiye
Authors: Ruh, Emrah
Özkan, Ayşegül Taylan
Keywords: Outbreaks
water-borne diseases
food-borne diseases
vector-borne diseases
School Students
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: Ankara Microbiology Soc
Abstract: Outbreaks due to parasites can occur in various parts of the world and in different periods. These outbreaks can be caused by water and food, as well as by human-to-human or vector-borne transmission. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis were among the pathogens that affected most people in water-borne outbreaks occurred in the world between 2010-2014. The chlorine resistance of both Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. leads to the widespread detection of these parasites in waterborne outbreaks. These two protozoans cause self-limiting watery diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals, but they can also cause chronic disease in certain situations. Apart from this, parasites such as Cyclospora spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii can also cause food -borne outbreaks. In Tarkiye, outbreaks related to these parasites have emerged with the neglect of the notification. Some parasites transmitted from person to person can also pose a threat to public health in certain periods. Head lice, the most common examples of such parasites, can cause outbreaks in certain periods. Another example for human-induced parasitic outbreaks is scabies. There has been an increase in scabies rates in the world and in Tarkiye, especially due to the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the first period of the pandemic, it was thought that due to the curfew restrictions, family members spending time at home might have led to an increase in the rate of scabies. On the other hand, as a result of the disruption of services due to COVID-19, the cases of malaria, a vector-borne disease, and the resulting deaths increased in 2020 compared to 2019 in the world. Although only imported malaria cases are detected in Tarkiye today, there is a potential for an outbreak to occur at any time due to the presence of malaria vectors. An outbreak of imported malaria occurred in Mardin in 2012 due to a lorry driver entering the country from an endemic region. Immigrants that reside in Tarkiye pose a risk for some infectious diseases due to the circumstances during migration or the conditions in their living areas. Leishmaniasis, which maintains its importance in the Mediterranean region, is another vector-borne disease and can be detected in Tarkiye, especially in regions where immigrants reside. Bed bug infestations, which have increased recently, also closely affect the provision of health services. It is important to implement regular inspections in regions with outbreak potential, and to ensure the continuity of hygiene conditions and health services to prevent a possible outbreak. In case of an outbreak, different centers should cooperate, health authorities and academics should act together, patients and their contacts should be identified quickly and necessary precautions should be taken, the society should be informed and the outbreak should be taken under control in a short time. In this review article, outbreaks caused by parasites were examined under four headings as water, food, human and vector/arthropod-borne and examples from the world and Tarkiye were given for these outbreaks.
ISSN: 0374-9096
Appears in Collections:PubMed İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / PubMed Indexed Publications Collection
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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