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Title: Synthesis and characterization of homogeneously dispersed graphene–copper heterostructures with enhanced thermal properties
Authors: Cakir, D.
Caylan, O.R.
Cambaz, Buke, G.
Keywords: Grain growth; Graphene; Plasma CVD; Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition; Pore size; Temperature; Thermal conductivity; Thickness measurement; 3D graphene; Copper grains; Copper-composites; Cu powders; Graphitic layers; Lows-temperatures; Property; Synthesis and characterizations; Thermal; Vapor-deposition techniques; Sintering
Issue Date: 2024
Publisher: Springer
Abstract: Graphene-reinforced copper composites have gained significant attention due to their exceptional properties and potential applications across various industries. This study presents a novel approach to synthesize 3D graphene–copper heterostructures using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. The method involves encapsulating Cu powders with graphitic layers through PECVD at a low temperature of 400 °C to prevent copper powder agglomeration during the process, ensuring uniform graphene coating across the entire copper surface. Microstructural characterization of the resulting 3D graphene–copper heterostructures confirms successful encapsulation, with graphitic coating thicknesses ranging from 5–15 nm. The unique graphene-encapsulated Cu powder structure facilitates pressureless sintering, yielding consolidated composites with exceptional structural integrity. Metallographic analysis of the consolidated samples revealed a uniformly distributed multilayer graphitic network within the graphene–copper (G/Cu) composite structure. The presence of graphene between copper grains is found to inhibit copper grain growth, leading to smaller copper grains compared to graphene-free copper monoliths. Furthermore, the G/Cu composite had significantly reduced pore size and ensuant higher density when compared to the sample prepared without graphene encapsulation. Graphene’s lubricating effect is presumed to enhance the freedom of rotation for copper grains during sintering and cause increased densification. The thermal diffusivity of the graphene–copper heterostructure is measured as 1.38 cm2/s using thermal flash technique, representing an approximate 40% improvement compared to graphene-free copper. This enhancement in thermal conductivity is attributed to the presence of strongly bonded graphene layers between copper grains and additional thermal transport originating from graphitic interface. Thermal diffusivity was decreased monotonically with increasing temperature at temperature range 20–200 °C indicating prevalent phonon contribution. In the context of technological implications, successful synthesis of 3D graphene–copper heterostructures using scalable plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique establishes a foundation for the development of advanced materials with tailored properties and multifunctional applications, particularly those requiring lightweight characteristics, high transport properties (thermal or electrical), and exceptional mechanical strength. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
ISSN: 0022-2461
Appears in Collections:Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection

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