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Title: Fluid Flow Characteristics of Healthy and Calcified Aortic Valves Using Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Coherent Structures Analysis
Authors: Mutlu, Onur
Salman, Hüseyin Enes
Yalçın, Hüseyin Çağatay
Olcay, Ali Bahadır
Keywords: Lagrangian coherent structures
aortic valve
finite-time Lyapunov exponent
particle residence time
fluid-structure interaction
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Mdpi
Abstract: Aortic valve calcification is an important cardiovascular disorder that deteriorates the accurate functioning of the valve leaflets. The increasing stiffness due to the calcification prevents the complete closure of the valve and therefore leads to significant hemodynamic alterations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling enables the investigation of the entire flow domain by processing medical images from aortic valve patients. In this study, we computationally modeled and simulated a 3D aortic valve using patient-specific dimensions of the aortic root and aortic sinus. Leaflet stiffness is deteriorated in aortic valve disease due to calcification. In order to investigate the influence of leaflet calcification on flow dynamics, three different leaflet-stiffness values were considered for healthy, mildly calcified, and severely calcified leaflets. Time-dependent CFD results were used for applying the Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) technique by performing finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) computations along with Lagrangian particle residence time (PRT) analysis to identify unique vortex structures at the front and backside of the leaflets. Obtained results indicated that the peak flow velocity at the valve orifice increased with the calcification rate. For the healthy aortic valve, a low-pressure field was observed at the leaflet tips. This low-pressure field gradually expanded through the entire aortic sinus as the calcification level increased. FTLE field plots of the healthy and calcified valves showed a variety of differences in terms of flow structures. When the number of fluid particles in the healthy valve model was taken as reference, 1.59 and 1.74 times more particles accumulated in the mildly and severely calcified valves, respectively, indicating that the calcified valves were not sufficiently opened to allow normal mass flow rates.
ISSN: 2311-5521
Appears in Collections:Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü / Department of Mechanical Engineering
Scopus İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / Scopus Indexed Publications Collection
WoS İndeksli Yayınlar Koleksiyonu / WoS Indexed Publications Collection

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